secret Bilderberg Agenda Leaked!!!

Secret Bilderberg Agenda Leaked by Mole

June 9, 2011 By Truthin369
Filed under BilderbergSecret Societies

(INFOWARS)   Alex Jones and Infowars.com have received inside information regarding the Bilderberg agenda now unfolding in the idyllic Swiss countryside.

According to AFP journalist and legendary Bilderberg sleuth Jim Tucker’s inside sources, the agenda now under review includes a number of critical issues at the top of the elite’s to-do list. These breakdown as follows:

The elite are concerned that the American Congress may soon turn against the illegal and immoral invasion under humanitarian cover by NATO and the UN against the north African dictator Moammar Gaddafi.

As columnist Patrick Buchanan noted yesterday, Congress is rising in opposition to bogus wars launched by the executive branch in violation of the Constitution.

“Last week, House Speaker John Boehner had to scramble to cobble up a substitute resolution to prevent half his GOP caucus from joining with Democrats to denounce President Obama’s war in Libya as unconstitutional and to demand a total U.S. pullout in 15 days,” Buchanan wrote.

More than a third of House Republicans voted to pull out of the NATO coalition attacking Gaddafi’s forces, in essence forcing a NATO withdrawal from the color revolution engineered civil war in that country.

In January, former oil industry pastor Lindsey Williams revealed that his inside sources said oil prices will skyrocket – a fait accompli with gas prices at the pump now at historically high levels – as the global elite work behind the scenes to take take down national economies. Williams appeared on the Alex Jones Show to talk about new revelations that deal with the death of the dollar, exploding energy prices, and the engineered onset of order out of chaos revolution worldwide.

The elite now meeting behind closed door in the Switzerland are pushing for a wider war and incalculable suffering in the Middle East.

The money masters have long profited from war and mass murder. Nathan Rothschild made a financial bet on Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and while also funding the Duke of Wellington’s peninsular campaign against Napoleon. The House of Rothschild financed the Prussian War, the Crimean War and the British attempt to seize the Suez Canal from the French and also financed the Mexican War and the Civil War in the U.S.

In addition to worrying about Congress waking up to the Libyan scam, the global elite is also concerned about a diverse liberty movement that has grown exponentially with the help of an open and free internet.

In response, the pocketed pawns in Congress have introduced a raft of bills over the last few months designed to take down the internet and blunt its impact as a medium for alternative news and information.

On April 1, 2009, the Senate introduced two bills, endangering a free and open internet: S. 773: Cybersecurity Act of 2009 and S. 778 to establish a White House cybersecurity czar.

In addition, on September 20, 2010, S. 3804: Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act (COICA) was introduced.

Early last month, an especially ominous bill was introduced in the Senate. Entitled Preventing Real Online Threats to Economic Creativity and Theft of Intellectual Property Act of 2011, PROTECT IP for short, this legislation would use copyright infringement as a smoke screen to take down web domains and institute rolling censorship.

On the international front, the European Commission gave a nod toward implementing the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), a draconian measure that will subvert national sovereignty, trash Net Neutrality, consumer privacy, and civil liberties. In the United States, the corporate media has virtually ignored ACTA, but then key players in the Mockingbird media are often Bilderberg attendees and privy to aspects of the agenda.

The above represent a small sampling of legislation and treaties that will be used to shut down the opposition under the cover of protecting copyright and preventing terrorism.

Hyperventilating over exaggerated threats of cybersecurity, Senator Jay Rockefeller mused during a congressional meeting on cyber crime and terrorism in 2009: “It really almost makes you ask the question would it have been better if we had never invented the internet.”

The globalists are not opposed to the internet, especially as a corporatized money-making instrument. They are, however, opposed to an open, free, and unregulated by government internet where alternative media opposed to their globalist devices are allowed to thrive.

In addition, we can expect minions of the global elite who parade around as our elected representatives and appointed government officials to continue their propaganda efforts to convince the American people that the internet will be used as a terrorist weapon of mass destruction and as such needs to be tightly regulated – for our own safety, of course, and that of the children.

Finally, the Bilderbergers will work on an effort to sucker an already economically besieged American public into further fantastic debt producing bankster bailouts, specifically for Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and other member EU nations sliding toward bankruptcy and social disruption on a monumental scale.

In late 2010, the U.S. Treasury, now operating as a liaison between the government and the bankster owned private Federal Reserve, indicated it was ready to fork over billions more to the European black hole.

“There are obviously some severe market problems,” said a faceless bureaucrat, speaking on condition of anonymity. “In May, it was Greece. This is Ireland and Portugal. If there is contagion that’s a huge problem for the global economy.”

As of late 2010, the IMF, whose biggest single “shareholder” (read: parasitical host) is the United States, has committed 250 billion euros to the bankster engineered black hole.

“Why should American taxpayers be on the hook because a foreign government cannot cover its debts?” asked Rep. Ron Paul, R-Texas, at a House subcommittee hearing last May.

Because the plan is to take down national sovereignty, impose drastic austerity measures, hold fire sales on national assets, consolidate wealth and power, and use an endless economic crisis as an excuse to usher in world government, a one-world currency, and a sprawling high-tech police state.

Related:

Bilderbergers Build Wall to Hide Attendees

Europe Marches on Bilderberg Tyrants

Europe Marches on Bilderberg Tyrants

original article from below

http://www.infowars.com/breaking-secret-bilderberg-agenda-leaked-by-mole/

Hidden Technology

Hidden Technology.

James Casbolt (NSA Whistleblower)Must read

Former MI6 Agent James Casbolt Says the National Security Agency is Trying to Recruit Him
JamesCasbolt.com

James Casbolt
James Casbolt

IG

James [Casbolt] has just decided to go public with some highly sensitive information in order to protect himself and his loved ones. I will give a brief chronological explanation of the recent events, and I will provide you with sensitive documents that James has withheld from the public until now.

[James is currently in a period of recovery and will soon be writing an article to detail these recent developments. Updates are soon to come.]

On or about October 10th, 2006, James phoned me to give me the shocking details of Dean Warwick’s death on stage [1] at the UFO conference he had just attended. (See the NEWS section of the website for details of Dean’s death [2].  James was shaken and quite disturbed by what he had witnessed that weekend, but even more disturbing was what happened at his home the day before the conference. While James did not hesitate to go public with the events surrounding Dean’s death, he has kept certain propositions secret because his life was threatened.

On October 5th, 2006, two days before the conference, James received the following email:

From : xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Sent : 05 October 2006 09:34:01
To : jamescasbolt@hotmail.co.uk
Subject : RE: P1 P2 Bill and Bob Bennet

| | | Inbox

Greetings Brother James

P2 correct! HK controlled by walk-in Melthraazur from Procyon

P1 is Brother Brezinski but he is not a walk in. Brother Brezinski [ 33
degree Zion ] has incarnated from Sirius to fulfill obligations to the
Shadow empire. 

We also know that you are keeping these correspondences secret as we have
your keyboard tapped. You have also been tailed by our security team {
wackenhut forces cloaked and escorted by zetan sentries ] so do not attempt
anything so foolish. Others have regretted such actions. Journalist Danny
Casolaro [3] also came too close to our Octopus


Danny Casolaro

xxxxxxxx has your info and will release it uipon OUR orders.

Not much time left before FINAL SOLUTION and chipping program implemented
and destined to be achieved before Dec 22nd 2012.

Brother Casbolt..May we ask you to please consider joining our army of
Lucifer.. We admire your courage and believe you would make an excellent
servant of the Light. Consider this offer. What may be your price?

Caecus Barathrum Contumelia
SECRET/COMINT/X1_RWG, ZB, HK

xxxxxxxxx _ ACTION

The following day, James describes what he saw outside his home:

‘I saw the craft at 2.00am on the 6th of Oct. I was sitting in my front room
and all of a sudden felt compelled to go and look out of the window. The
craft was positioned in the sky near my local beach and hung motionless and
then started to make erratic flight manoeuvres at multiple G’s. It was quite
far away but looked like it could of been triangular in shape. I woke my
girlfriend up and she also witnessed this craft. It was pulsating with a red
light and also glowed white at some points. It did this for around fifteen
minutes and then disappeared. This craft seemed to be putting on some sort
of show. I did not have a camera handy at the time. I received the email
from the NSA two hours later saying they had sent it.’

This is the email he received from the NSA (National Security Agency) 2 hours later:

From : xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Sent : 06 October 2006 03:59:19
To : jamescasbolt@hotmail.co.uk
Subject : RE: Negotiations

| | | Inbox

——————————————————————————–

Attachment : xxxxxxx_ACIO.jpg (< 0.01 MB)

Brother James

The Zetan craft is ours – the chip we had implanted in you allows clear
tracking and processing of your bioplasmic consciousness in 4D Hologramatic
Space Time. The craft is NOT CIA – our structure is private, self financed,
and serves Lord Marduk – king of Kings as prophesized in our Porotocols of
the Elders of Zion, ours is a a clear blue blood lineage that descends from
Babylon, its purpose to establish a One World Aryan elite with the Nordic
“Jew” Lord Marduk as our King of Kings. We are financed privately, as you
correctly understand, through the global drug and arms trade. Our nexus of
control is global and spans the seven contents from Mt Ziel to Geneva to
Dulce to Midlands to Tibet etc.

Our Nordic allies are commencing the final harvest of homosapien matria eggs
utilizing Zetan bio-robots.

Let me show you how Eric Trist from the Tavistock Institute made public
statements from our private and coherent policy set at Bilderberger as far
back as the 1960s

http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/prepare4contact/message/21781

Brother James. It is useless to run nor to hide. You are in essence ours.
Your defection from MI6 displeases us.

I enclose a photograph of myself so you may recognize me. I am prepared to
meet you face to face but this will be on our terms Brother James. I have
been commanded to approach you but not to alert you. If you are a true
walkin and not an imposter as we believe you will recognize me and we may
commence negotiations.

Yours in Service

Dr xxxxxxxxxxx
ACTION

At first, James was unsure of how much credence to give these propositions; however, the situation has since escalated. This past weekend, James was again contacted and urged to enter into a binding agreement with this Luciferic government. Below is the Nondisclosure Agreement he was urged to sign:

NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENT

1. Intending to be legally bound, I hereby accept the obligations contained
in this agreement in consideration of my being granted access to classified
information. As used in the agreement, classified information is
information that is either classified or classifiable under the standards of
Executive Order 12356, or under any other executive order or statute that
prohibits the unauthorized disclosure of information in the interest of
national security. I understand and accept that by being granted access to
classified information, special confidence and trust shall be placed in me
by A.C.T.I.O.N. and the National Security Agency.

2. I hereby acknowledge that I have received a security indoctrination
concerning the nature and protection of classified information to be
followed in ascertaining whether other persons to whom I contemplate
disclosing this information have been approved for access to it, and that I
understand these procedures.

3. I have been advised and am aware that direct or unauthorized disclosure,
unauthorized retention or negligent handling of classified information by me
could cause irreparable injury to the United States, the National Security
Agency, the Link, or AC.T.I.O.N., or could be used to advantage by an
adversarial foreign interest or civilization. I hereby agree that I will
never divulge such information unless I have officially verified that the
recipient has been properly authorized by A.C.T.I.O.N. to receive it or I
have been given prior written notice of authorization from A.C.T.I.O.N.
and/or the National Security Agency last granting me access clearance that
such disclosure is permitted. I further understand that I am obligated to
comply with laws and regulations that prohibit the unauthorized disclosure
of classified information.

4. I have been advised and am aware that any breach of this agreement may
result in the termination of any access clearances I hold, removal from any
position of special confidence and trust requiring such clearances, and the
termination of my association and other relationships with A.C.T.I.O.N. and
the National Security Agency that granted my access clearances. In addition,
I have been advised and am aware that any unauthorized disclosure of
classified information by me may constitute a violation, or violations of
United States criminal laws, including the provisions of Sections 641, 793,
794, 798, and 952 Title 18 United States Code, the provisions of Sections
783 (b), Title 50, United States code, and the provisions of the
Intelligence identities Prosecution Act of 1982. I recognize that nothing in
the agreement constitutes a waiver by the United States of the right to
prosecute me for any statutory violation.

5. I hereby assign to the National Security Agency and A.C.T.I.O.N. all
royalties, remunerations, and emoluments that have resulted, will result,
ormay result from any disclosure, publication, or revelation not consistent
with the terms of this agreement, including but not limited to printed
books, television and/or motion picture fiction or documentary films,
magazine articles, books-on-tapes, and such kinds of electronic games
already created and invented or to be created and invented in the future.

6. I understand that the United States Government may seek any remedy
available to it to enforce this agreement including but not limited to,
application for a court order prohibiting disclosure of information in
breach of this agreement.

7. I understand that all information to which I may obtain access by signing
this agreement is now and will forever remain the property of the United
States Government, the National Security Agency, and/or the Link. I do not
now, nor will I ever, possess any right, interest, title, or claim
whatsoever to such information. I agree that I shall destroy (with
verification) or return all materials, which have or may have come into my
possession or for which I am responsible because of such access, upon demand
by an authorized representative of A.C.T.I.O.N. or the National Security
Agency or upon the conclusion of my association or other relationship with
A.C.T.I.O.N., which last granted me access clearance to such information
without standard vetting. I understand that noncompliance to this item may
be a violation of Section793, Title 18, United States Code, a United States
criminal law.

8. Unless and until I am released in writing by an authorized representative
of A.C.T.I.O.N. or the National Security Agency, I understand that all
conditions an obligations imposed upon me by this agreement apply during the
time I am granted access to classified information, and at all times
thereafter.

9. Each provision of this agreement is severable. If a court should find any
provision of this agreement to be unenforceable, all other provisions of
this agreement shall remain in full force and effect.

10. I have read this agreement carefully. I acknowledge that the sponsor has
made me aware that Sections 641, 793, 794, 798, and 952 of Title 18, United
States Code, Section 783 (b) of Title 50, United States Code, the
Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982; and Executive Order 12356,
apply to my participation in A.C.T.I.O.N.. and I accept them as having
purview over my handling of confidential, proprietary and sensitive
information. I also accept that I am responsible for obtaining a copy of
each of these CFR sections, executive order and congressional act, and that
I may seek and obtain assistance from first-among-equals in securing such
copies for my perusal.

11. I make this agreement without mental reservation or purpose of evasion.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
___________________________________ ___________________________________
Electronic Signature Candidate Electronic Signature

Project Officer–FOTORLALINK
___________________________________ ___________________________________
A.C.T.I.O.N. Date

On October 20th, he was also sent a satanic prayer that he was urged to recite as his initiation:

From : xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Sent : 20 October 2006 03:25:40
To : jamescasbolt@hotmail.co.uk
Subject : our sacred prayer

| | | Inbox

Brother James

Herewith Our prayer to hasten in Lord Marduks [4] reign – Our beloved AntiChrist
– The final Reich – heralding the sacred Eye of Horus and all Masonic and
sacred degrees up to the 33rd – the sacred domain of His Holiness Lord
Marduk


Marduk and his Dragon “Pet”

Holy and Sacred 33rd degree of Zion, and by the power of the Mighty
Sirius_Orion Presence, we call upon Beloved Ascended Master Lord Marduk,
keeper of the 33rd degree, and the FORCES OF LUCIFERIC_LIGHT to fully
protect our SACRED TEMPLE OF SOLOMON and all those who are bringing NESARA
to announcement, – we command and demand the continuous presence and
overshadowing protection of the FORCES OF luciferic LIGHT on their behalf to
usher in our final Reich of The Antichrist

We pray that they might come to a full understanding of what it means to
‘humbly ask for help’ by the power of our own Mighty LUCIFERIC presence, and
to use ALL POWER WITHIN OUR MEANS, and the gifts that the FORCES OF
LUCIFERIC LIGHT give us, and the Galactic Federation of Worlds are
presenting to the world. And so it is! –

Brother James – We beeseech you to utter these words which should transmute
you to a servant in our Greater Lord Marduks Satanic Domain

xxxxxxxxxxx
ACTION

I must make clear the fact that James is NOT going to join the Luciferic government. He is putting his faith in Jesus Christ and trusting in His protection. On the night of October 23rd, 2006, James was attacked in his home with what he believes to be an E.L.F (extremely low frequency) weapon. His body went into spasms and he described feeling as though he was being electrocuted. He phoned me the next morning and was physically very weak and clearly shaken up badly. This was clearly an attempt on his life, and thus, James has decided to go public with these “negotiations.”

We ask that you help by distributing this information and getting James’ situation out in the open quickly in order to protect him.

Please pray for James’ quick recovery, and once again, thank you for your support. [5]


Footnotes by Wes Penre

[1http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?ChannelID=67
[2] http://www.jamescasbolt.com/news4.htm
[3] See http://www.amazon.com/Octopus-Secret-Government-Death-Casolaro/dp/0922915393 for information regarding “The Octopus” and the death of Danny Casolaro. Book by Ken Thomas and Jim Keith,
[4] Marduk is the name of a Sumerian “God”, the son of Ea (or Enki), and this article confirms my own research that the biblical “Satan” is Ea and the AntiChrist will be his son, Marduk. For more information on the alien race, Anunnaki, to where Ea and Marduk belong, see my “READ FIRST” article: “The Secret Order of the Illuminati (A Brief History of “Moriah” or the Shadow Government)“. Also, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marduk for more info on Marduk in particular.
[5] Don’t miss out on listening to James Casbolt’s interview with Daniel Ott on “The Edge” (Aug 5, 2006): | Part 1 | Part 2 | (10Mb and 14Mb respectively).
Please download them by right-clicking on the Part 1/Part 2 links above and distribute these videos widely. In case something serious happens to James, we want to make sure these interviews stay in circulation and can be distributed world-wide. By making this information known, we may also be able to save his life. The Illuminati often hesitate to assassinate a person who is too well known. His death would be too obvious an assassination.


Source: Correspondence with James Casbolt’s webmaster. Original article: http://www.jamescasbolt.com/breaking.htm


This page may contain copyrighted material, the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. I am making such material available in my efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. I believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.

YouTube – Part 1/9 – Out Of The Blue

Area 51

YouTube – Part 1/9 – Out Of The Blue.

YouTube – ‪truthin369’s Channel‬‏

YouTube – ‪truthin369’s Channel‬‏.

War Leaks | WL Central

War Leaks | WL Central.

NASA Scientists Say Life On Europa Is A Definite!!!

This contains four articles on Europa. First is a NASA press release. Second, an article from Reuters. Third a NY Times article, and an article from the Discovery Channel.

========================================================
ARTICLE #1

NASA RELEASE: 97-66
NEW IMAGES HINT AT WET AND WILD HISTORY FOR EUROPA

Chunky ice rafts and relatively smooth, crater-free patches on the surface of Jupiter’s frozen moon Europa suggest a younger, thinner icy surface than previously believed, according to new images from Galileo’s spacecraft released today.

The images were captured during Galileo’s closest flyby of Europa on Feb. 20, 1997, when the spacecraft came within 363 miles of the Jovian moon. These features, which lend credence to the idea of hidden, subsurface oceans, also are stirring up controversy among scientists who disagree about the age of Europa’s surface.

Dr. Ronald Greeley, an Arizona State University geologist and Galileo imaging team member, said the ice rafts reveal that Europa had, and may still have, a very thin ice crust covering either liquid water or slush.

“We’re intrigued by these blocks of ice, similar to those seen on Earth’s polar seas during springtime thaws,” Dr. Greeley said. “The size and geometry of these features lead us to believe there was a thin icy layer covering water or slushy ice, and that some motion caused these crustal plates to break up.”

“These rafts appear to be floating and may, in fact, be comparable to icebergs here on Earth,” said another Galileo imaging team member, Dr. Michael Carr, a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey. “The puzzle is what causes the rafts to rotate. The implication is that they are being churned by convection.”

The new images of Europa’s surface also have sparked a lively debate among scientists. Galileo imaging team member Dr. Clark Chapman is among those who believe the smoother regions with few craters indicate Europa’s surface is much younger than previously believed. In essence, Chapman, a planetary scientist at Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, believes the fewer the craters, the younger the region. Clark based his estimate on current knowledge about cratering rates, or the rate at which astronomical bodies are bombarded and scarred by hits from comets and asteroids.

“We’re probably seeing areas a few million years old or less, which is about as young as we can measure on any planetary surface besides Earth,” said Chapman. “Although we can’t pinpoint exactly how many impacts occurred in a given period of time, these areas of Europa have so few craters that we have to think of its surface as young.”

Chapman added, “Europa’s extraordinary surface geology indicates an extreme youthfulness — a very alive world in a state of flux.”

However, Carr sees things differently. He puts Europa’s surface age at closer to one billion years old.

“There are just too many unknowns,” Carr said. “Europa’s relatively smooth regions are most likely caused by a different cratering rate for Jupiter and Earth. For example, we believe that both Earth’s moon and the Jovian moon, Ganymede, have huge craters that are 3.8 billion years old. But when we compare the number of smaller craters superimposed on these large ones, Ganymede has far fewer than Earth’s moon. This means the cratering rate at Jupiter is less than the cratering rate in the Earth-moon system.”

Scientists hope to find answers to some of the questions surrounding Europa and its possible oceans as the Galileo spacecraft continues its journey through the Jovian system.

“We want to look for evidence of current activity on Europa, possibly some erupting geysers,” Greeley said. “We also want to know whether Europa’s surface has changed since the Voyager spacecraft flyby in 1979, or even during the time of the Galileo flybys.”

The craft will return for another Europa flyby on Nov. 6, 1997, the final encounter of Galileo’s primary mission. However, eight more Europa flybys are planned as part of Galileo’s two-year extended mission, which also will include encounters with two other Jovian moons, Callisto and Io.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

Images and other data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at URL:

http://www.jpl.nasa.goBy Michael Miller

NOTE TO EDITORS: Stills and animation of the Galileo spacecraft are available by calling the JPL Public Information Office at 818/354-5011.

========================================================ARTICLE #2

PASADENA, Calif. (Reuter) – Space scientists said Wednesday they were confident life existed in the muddy waters of one of Jupiter’s moons.

“I am sure there’s life there,” John Delaney of the University of Washington said in a reference to the Jovian moon Europa. Delaney and the other experts spoke at a news briefing detailing results of pictures from the Galileo probe.

Pictures of Europa sent back by Galileo after its closest flyby of the moon in February and released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Wednesday showed a red-colored sea with a crust of ice about three feet thick in which huge icebergs several miles across were floating, the scientists said. The images were taken as Galileo was 363 miles from Europa.

Talking to reporters at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the scientists said they believed all the ingredients for creating and sustaining life forms existed in Europa’s waters.

Delaney, a professor of oceanology, said he and other scientists believed the waters under the ice crust were being warmed by volcanic activity and undersea research on Earth had shown that “volcanic activity supports life without sunlight.”

Richard Terrile of the JPL, a planetary scientist, said he believed there was organic matter in sediment at the bottom of Europa’s ocean and pointed out: “On Earth, these same ingredients in a million years gave presence to life.”

Terrile said he would like to see a “machine exploration” of Europa during a future unmanned probe to the moon in the hope of confirming his beliefs.

Delaney said he was “very excited” by Galileo’s pictures. ”The bottom line is, it’s about life. The discovery of life on another planet will surpass anything that has ever taken place in human history,” he said.

He added that volcanic activity not only sustained life but encouraged it, saying when a volcano erupted under the ocean on Earth it caused bacteria to “bloom at a massive level.”

In an effort to bolster their life-in-outer-space theory, scientists and engineers from around the world were meeting in Pasadena Wednesday and Thursday to discuss an exploration of Lake Vostok, a subglacial lake under the ice in Antarctica which they believe has conditions similar to Europa’s sea.

Michael Carr of the United States Geological Survey said there was evidence of movement and rotation by the icebergs which could not be explained by wind as Europa is in a vacuum. ”The plausible cause for this motion is traction below which implies liquid below.

Dr Paul Geissler of the University of Arizona said the pictures showed the sea as a red-brown area on the surface of Europa. He speculated that the red-brown material in the waters indicated it was a “muddy sea,” while Max Coon, a scientist with NorthWest Research Associates, Inc., concluded after studying the pictures that, “The ice features here (on Earth) look very, very like the ones on Europa.”

Oceanographer Clark Chapman of the Southwest Research Institute said he believed Europa was still developing and the ice crust was about one million years old, “a mere day in geological terms.”

The scientists, who make up the Galileo imaging team and whose task it is to interpret the pictures and data sent back from the spacecraft, also said it appeared that the ice crust was slowly melting because of the warmer waters below which were being heated by volcanic activity.

Galileo was launched by the shuttle Atlantis in October, 1989 and arrived at Jupiter to begin its exploration of the planet and its moons in December of 1995.

REUTER

=========================================================
ARTICLE #3

Photos Suggest a Jupiter Moon May Hold Life
By JOHN NOBLE WILFORD

Looking at the most detailed pictures yet of Europa, a large moon of Jupiter, scientists said Wednesday that they were more confident than ever that a global ocean of liquid water or slush was lying just beneath Europa’s thin crust of cracked ice. And this, they said with rising enthusiasm, might just be the place to look for extraterrestrial life.

On Europa, which is about 2,000 miles in diameter, or slightly smaller than Earth’s Moon, fracture lines extend hundreds of miles across the frozen surface, curving and intersecting in spider-web patterns. Huge ice blocks stand above the crust like icebergs. Everywhere the surface is fragmented, as if chunks of ice cracked, drifted apart and then froze again in slightly different places, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle not quite perfectly rearranged.

This was compelling evidence, scientists said, that heat from Europa’s interior has turned a thick layer of Europa’s ice into liquid water and that the warmth and currents of the subsurface ocean have created shattering stresses on the crustal ice.

They said they believed the heat most likely came from the radioactive decay of elements in the moon’s rocky core and also from tidal forces caused by the gravitational pull of Jupiter, the solar system’s largest planet, and its three other large moons, Io, Callisto and Ganymede.

“This is a very convincing set of pictures with respect to the presence of a liquid ocean,” said Dr. Michael Carr, a planetary geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

Since water — and the heat to keep it in a liquid state — are essential conditions for life on Earth, the possible discovery of liquid water on another body in the solar system inevitably stirs new speculation about extraterrestrial life. Europa has no atmosphere to speak of, so for life to exist there, it would have to be in the subsurface ocean.

Oceanographers examining volcanic vents on the floors of Earth’s seas have found evidence that these could be sites where terrestrial life began some 3.8 billion years ago.

The other most likely place in the solar system where life might have begun is Mars. Surface erosion shows water probably flowed on the Martian plains in the past. Last year, a meteorite from Mars was reported to contain minerals and other characteristics associated with life.

Dr. Ronald Greeley, a planetary geologist from Arizona State University in Tempe, said the widespread phenomenon of ice blocks on Europa’s surface resembled pack ice on Earth’s polar seas during spring thaws. “The size and geometry of these features lead us to believe there was a thin icy layer covering water or slushy ice, and that some motion caused these crustal plates to break up.”

Dr. Richard Terrile, a planetary scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., gave an even more enthusiastic interpretation. “These are really mind-blowing pictures,” he said. “How often is an ocean discovered? The last one was the Pacific by Balboa, and that was 500 years ago.”

NASA made the pictures public Wednesday at a news conference at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where the Galileo mission is being directed. The pictures were taken Feb. 20 as the Galileo spacecraft swung within 363 miles of Europa, the closest it or any other spacecraft has ever come to the Jovian moon. Galileo is in its second year of orbiting Jupiter and taking close-up photographs of the planet’s four major satellites.

For several years, planetary scientists have speculated that an ocean might lie under Europa’s surface, and where there was liquid water, it followed that there could be life. They were encouraged in this line of thinking by discoveries in recent years of life at volcanic vents on Earth’s sea floors.

Inspired by the new pictures and the stronger inference of subsurface seas on Europa, several scientists spoke more openly of the prospects for some kind of primitive life on Europa and what it would take to explore such a possibility. No one at the news conference struck a bolder note than Dr. John Delaney, an oceanographer at the University of Washington in Seattle, who has championed the concept of possible life on Europa.

When asked if he thought there was was life on the Jovian moon, Delaney first gave a careful response: “Science is driven by questions, by hypotheses that are then tested. NASA and oceanographers the world over will be trying very hard to prove whether there is life there. It’s a challenge to all of humanity to explore this system.”

Then he paused and threw caution to the winds. “But the answer is, I’m sure there’s life,” he said.

Dr. Torrence V. Johnson, the mission’s chief scientist, noted that there was “no evidence directly bearing on life” in any water on Europa. “What we have found are the building blocks or the environment that are conducive to life,” he explained. “But we don’t know if those conditions necessarily lead to life.”

Other scientists noted that the surface of Europa bears few marks of impacts by asteroids or comets. This suggests that liquid water from beneath the surface has risen in relatively recent times and covered parts of the surface with new layers of ice, concealing old crater scars.

Dr. Clark Chapman of the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colo., said this re-surfacing has occurred more recently than expected, perhaps less than 1 million years ago. If so, it is more likely that the heat and liquid water that shaped Europa in the past are still active there.

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By Jay Ingram

Ever since the announcement last summer that there might have been life in the past on Mars, the extraterrestrial-life bandwagon has been full speed ahead. Speculation abounds but a recent case illustrates that there are limits: speculation still has to look and sound like science.

At the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science a couple of weeks ago, scientists discussed the possibility that life might have – and might still exist on Jupiter’s moon Europa.

Europa is by any measure a bizarre solar system object. Its surface appears to be a huge badly flooded skating rink at the end of a busy weekend, a vast globe of ice criss-crossed everywhere by cracks. There are very few craters, suggesting that those that once existed (almost everything in the solar system is thought to have been bombarded early on) have been smoothed out by an ever-changing surface.

Support for this idea comes from recent photos by the Galileo spacecraft showing what look like knew ice floes covering over old cracks. Also some of the cracks seem wider and darker than others.

This visual evidence, together with theoretical estimates of the heat-generating tidal pull on Europa by nearby Jupiter have prompted speculation that under that crust of ice (possibly very far under) there is a vast singular ocean of liquid water.

The dark cracks might be Europa’s counterpart of shifting ice pans in the dark Arctic, which sometimes break apart to reveal narrow channels of darker water between.

At the AAAS meeting, scientists were building on the idea of the moon-girdling ocean to suggest that undersea volcanoes on Europa, powered by Jovian tidal forces, once (or still) spewed forth organic matter into this ocean, just as happens at the hot vents under our oceans.

On Earth, these upwellings contain micro-organisms. On Europa, who knows? Maybe this unlikely moon is a reservoir of undersea life.

Or then again, maybe it isn’t. The Europa discussion at the AAAS was partially prompted by yet another close approach that might confirm or deny some of these ideas.

But there is a more interesting background to the idea. Speculation about Europa is by no means new. In late 1979, a science writer in the United States named Richard Hoagland first broached the idea that there might be life under the ice there. The images that sparked his imagination had arrived at Earth from the Voyager spacecraft, the one that gave us our first views of Jupiter, Saturn and their moons.

Hoagland put his ideas on paper in a verbose article in a magazine called Star and Sky in 1980. It’s intriguing to read the article now, partly because he so clearly anticipates the thinking today and partly because no one today seems to be acknowledging his priority.

Some of the details are dated (Hoagland leans heavily on electricity in the early Europan atmosphere to generate the life-forming organic molecules, while today, as I mentioned above, scientists rely on undersea volcanoes). But in most respects the two arguments are absolutely consistent.

So where is Hoagland today and why aren’t the Europa theorists talking about him. Is it perhaps because in the intervening years he took on a much more notorious cause, the face on Mars? Yes, it is the same Richard who is the prime mover behind the idea that a Viking spacecraft photo of a flat-topped mesa on the surface of Mars is a huge carved face.

Where Hoagland sees physiognomy, scientists see a chance juxtaposition of geology and shadow. But that hasn’t stopped him. Last time I checked, he’d identified a complex of temples and pyramids nearby.

So when it comes to Europa, why don’t we hear about Richard Hoagland? I think it’s because it’s perfectly okay to speculate about extraterrestrial life; it’s even okay to dream about it swimming under the Europan ice.

Jay Ingram hosts the tv program ‘@discovery.ca’ on the Discovery Channel in Canada.